CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM | Criminology Lecture CSS



What are the different sorts of crimes? A criminal offense is a crime culpable by a state. Criminal activities can be divided into four major groups – Personal criminal activities, Residential or commercial property criminal activities, Inchoate criminal offenses, and Statutory criminal activities. Personal crimes are offenses versus the person and will result in physical or psychological injury to another individual. These consist of Attack, Battery, False jail time, Kidnapping, Homicide, as well as Rape or various other offenses of a sexual nature.

Home criminal offenses do not always entail injury to an additional individual. Inchoate criminal activities indicates incomplete or the criminal offenses that were started but not finished.

Legal criminal offenses are violations of a particular state or federal statute and also can include either residential property offenses or personal infraction. Felony are major crimes such as Murder, Kidnapping, as well as Burglary and also lugs a year or more in state prison.

State regulations might additionally split the classifications of criminal activities into subcategories. Offenses against the person might be split right into the groups of “Terrible crimes” as well as “Non-violent criminal activities”.

The significant intent groups are General intent criminal offenses and Particular intent crimes. Crimes are not conveniently defined and also there are various kinds as well as variations.

Keep in mind, each state is different in exactly how the law is created, just how the behavior is controlled, and also the charges that each criminal activity potentially lugs. Some habits may be banned in one state as well as not in others. It’s vital to examine with a criminal protection lawyer in your state if you’re encountering criminal fees.

Crimes can be split into 4 major classifications – Individual criminal activities, Property crimes, Inchoate criminal activities, as well as Legal criminal activities. Individual crimes are offenses versus the person as well as will result in psychological or physical damage to one more person. Inchoate criminal activities indicates insufficient or the criminal activities that were started yet not finished. Offenses versus the individual might be split into the classifications of “Violent criminal activities” and “Non-violent criminal offenses”.

Criminology

VII. The Criminal Justice System:
*Police and its role
*Trial and Conviction of Offenders
*Agencies: formal and informal
*Criminal courts: procedures and problems
*Role of prosecutors
*Prisons, Probation and Parole

Criminal justice is the system in which crimes and criminals are detected, detained, tried, and punished.
The term criminal justice system refers to the components of government charged with enforcing law, adjudicating criminals, and correcting criminal conduct.
Formal crime control relies on the law and official government agencies to deter criminal actions and to respond to criminal activity. Informal crime control relies on moral and social institutions (e.g., family, peers, and neighbors) to promote lawful behavior.
In 1829, the first police agency, the London Metropolitan Police, was developed to keep the peace and identify criminal suspects.
The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
not limited to investigating crimes, identifying suspects, and making arrests. While most people are familiar with these law enforcement goals of police, there are actually many tasks performed by patrol officers.
Enhance public safety by maintaining a visible police presence’
Maintain public order (i.e., peacekeeping) within the patrol area
First response to fires and other emergencies
Educate children about crime, drug abuse, safety, and so on
Aid individuals and care for those who cannot help themselves
Facilitate the movement of traffic and people
Promote public safety and crime prevention
One of the primary goals of police work is to deter criminal behavior. The visible presence of patrol cars on the street and the rapid deployment of police officers to the scene of a crime are viewed as effective methods of crime control.

The judge, the prosecutor, and the defense attorney are the key players in the adversarial process.
The prosecution and defense oppose each other in a hotly disputed contest—the criminal trial—in accordance with rules of law and procedure. In every criminal case, the prosecutor represents the state’s interests and the defense attorney the criminal defendant’s, with each side trying to bring evidence and arguments forward to advance its case.
Theoretically, the ultimate objective of the adversarial system is to seek the truth, to determine whether the evidence presented at the trial is sufficient to prove the facts of the charge.
So that the defendant is given a fair trial, the judge acts as an impartial arbiter of procedure, ensuring that neither side violates the rules of trial conduct.
The prosecution represents the state in criminal matters that come before the courts.

The basic steps of the criminal trial proceed as follows:
Opening statements.
The prosecution’s case.
Cross-examination.
The defense’s case.
Rebuttal.
Closing arguments.
Instructions to the jury.
Verdict.
Sentence
Appeal

Prisons in Pakistan and their administration, is a Provincial subject under the Constitution of Pakistan.
Pakistan has the 23rd largest prison population in the world
Around 64.5% of prisoners are still awaiting trial. 98.6% of prisoners are male, 1.7% are juveniles and 1.2% of those held are foreign citizens.
As of 2018 Pakistan had an official occupancy rate for 56,499 prisoners but held 80,145 prisoners.

Functions of the Prison
Execute the sentence awarded by the Court.
Maintenance, Care, Custody and transfer of prisoners.
Maintenance of orders and discipline among the prisoners.
Control of expenditure relating to prison management.
Enforcement of Prison Act, all Laws, Rules/Regulations and orders pertaining to the protection and maintenance of prison/prisoners.
Imparting useful education / training to the prisoners in various trades/skills and other vocational disciplines for their rehabilitation.
Organizing of recreational programs, welfare measures and psychological counseling of inmates for their correction and rehabilitation.

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